Monday, May 25, 2020
There has been a significant amount critical analysis written about Flannery OConnors short stories and novels. There is a significant amount critical analysis about Flannery OConnor because she used so many styles that have not been used before. Flannery OConnor ranks among he most important American fiction writers of the twentieth century. Flannery OConnor was born in 1925 in Savannah, Georgia, and lived there until her family moved in 1938. OConnor and her family moved to a small Georgia farming town named Milledgeville. When Flannery was 15 years old her died father of a disease to the immune system known as lupus erythematosus. OConnor attended Georgia State College for Women after graduating from Peabody High School in 1942.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In 1955 OConnor produced her first collection of short fiction, A Good Man is Hard to Find. The title story of this collection is one of her best known works. OConnor eventually died in August 1964 having produced many contributions to American literature history. A Good Man is Hard to Find is one of the most characteristic and most frequently anthologized of all of OConnors works. This story explores the idea that unfortunate events can lead to knowledge. The plot of this story is simple and clear: a family on vacation is killed by an escape convict. OConnor does a great job in quot;...preparing for and unfolding the dramatic conflict between the grandmother and The Misfit, OConnor creates pure art out of the tragicomedy of lifequot;(DLB vol.2 383). In this, OConnor shows her characteristics of a good Christian writer: good is at any rate contorted out of evil. In all of OConnors stories there a certain pattern of a saving gesture or revealing word. In A Good Man is Hard to Find, the saving gesture is the grandmothers recognition of The Misfit. 3 Miss OConnor is criticized about her style of writing. OConnor is classified as a quot;Southernquot; and a quot;Catholicquot; writer by many critics. The major theme is that the Christian religion is a very shocking, and scandalous business. She has a sharp eye and a good ear for southern lifestyle. OConnor uses straightforward language and firmShow MoreRelated Flannery Oconnor1301 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesreflected on how the world was dealing with the changes. Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, a prominent Catholic writer from the South, was one of the many who examined society and shared their philosophies. OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor shocked her twentieth century readers with the haunting style and piercing questions in her short stories and novels, which were centered on a combination of her life experiences, her deep Catholic faith, and the literature of the time. Mary Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor was born in Savannah, Georgia in 1925 intoRead MoreThe Life Of Flannery OConnor Essay1099 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespeople do not see the large influence of an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood on their writings, but it plays a major role. The life of Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor is no exception to this. The great Catholic lifestyle of her parents helped persuade her writing of, Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find.Ã¢â¬ Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor is regarded as one of the greatest supporters of Roman Catholic writings in the twentieth century. OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor was born in Savannah on March 25th, 1925 and her parents were very devout Catholics. She was raised to alwaysRead MoreMary Shelley and Flannery OConnor: Gothic Isolationists1724 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Gothic fiction is a genre of literature that combines fiction, horror and Romanticism with a particular focus on the mysterious and supernatural aspects. Gothic fiction originated in England during the latter half of the 18th century. This distinctive genre of literature soon developed into a 19th century phenomenon. The success of this dominant genre in England is frequently attributed to Mary Shelley. Despite its success during this time period, gothic fiction ceased to be a dominant genre by
Thursday, May 14, 2020
All the organization globally need to make clear and good decisions to avoid risks and reduce or eliminate losses. The organization that makes good decisions normally generates profits with the minimal amount of resources allocations. Therefore, security evaluations and predictions are significant despite some degree of costs associated with them (Culp, 2001). The areas concerning the security are significant aspect because of the protection required by business, governments and any other organization globally. There is an application of the information technology to these institutions of business, governments to ensure that efficient and best protection is achieved at its maximum (Bryen, 2016). Information technology is an application of computers to transmit study, manipulate, transmit and store information or data in the context of governments, business or organizations and they are meant for security purposes. There is a need to develop the entrenched security structure for the IT and the blueprint security explanation that will save diverse overcrowding attacks and enable the systems to perform the efficient managements. There is a need for security because the data is growing and the attackers utilize many platforms to hack the data. We will write a custom essay sample on The Cyber Security Delusion or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The VIC government considers all the risks should be dealt with clearly and specifically utilizing the devices and strategies available. The security measures help in preventing discovering, correcting and preventing security problems and the risks from occurring making the working environment safe for them. There are many diverse challenges that need to be tackled with one or all of the devices of security measures (Culp, 2001). The management, heterogeneity, and scalability of the devices are the primary challenge that should be dealt with inclusive of the networked context and knowledge. The security, trust, and privacy should be modified to all the apparatus and information (Bryen, 2016).
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The empires of Rome and China were very great ones, they both had many similarities and differences in the way they ran their empires. One major difference was the way they treated their women. Both Chinese and Roman women were unequal in social status than the men of the empires were, but they were definitely treated different in both empires. Women of China were treated quite harshly and were expected to take orders at all times by their husbands, and were to serve them always. This started to happen especially after Confucius died because he taught people to treat each other the same, Ã¢â¬Å"after his death women became less free and lost status,Ã¢â¬ (Arvind 10). Women of Rome were treated like goddesses; they were to stay at home as housewivesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, they were allowed to play a part in religion; although it was not a high role, being a monk in the Chinese culture was seen to be the highest level of authority that a woman could be given. There wer e some differences between the two empires in this area, women in Rome were given the opportunity to become very important in the religion of the Roman people; however they were never given too much power, they would never be allowed to hold a position in office. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not hard to see that women were treated far worse than men were; this is just because the men never thought of them as equal and that was just the way it would be. Women in China were definitely treated like slaves as compared to Roman women who were given a little freedom; Chinese women would have to obey their husbands and had to make sure that their chores like cooking and cleaning were done by the end of the day. Ã¢â¬Å"In Rome women were treated inferior, but the men of the empire would always look after them; they would always have a male guardian with them most of the time,Ã¢â¬ (Ramirez et al 179). Chinese women were ordered around constantly and would never even think about disobeying their husbands. Roman women were treated more like precious gems; their husbands made sure that they avoided contact with men other than family members, they wanted to make sure their wives stayed pure and faithful to them at all times. In comparison, Chinese womenShow MoreRelatedWomen of Ancient Rome and China Essay2040 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesWomen of Ancient Rome and China Women in ancient Rome and China were very different but quite similar as for as their treatment and roles were concerned. In both cultures they were under the protection of their fathers until they married. When they married they were to stay home and be wives, they were not formally educated and learned to manage their households. They were not allowed to disgrace their families in any way and were inferior to men from the moment of birth. Chinese women whetherRead MoreAncient Rome And Ancient China939 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAncient Rome and Ancient China were two different civilizations with very different yet very similar ways of life. Culture, religion, and more importantly, politics, helped make life the way it was for those who lived in ancient rome and ancient china. Politics were what made everything function, just as it does today. Politics is what was responsible for the wars that took place between civilizations, and why dynastyÃ¢â¬â¢s fell and why new ones rose right af ter. Politics were the backbone holding upRead MoreWomen Of The Roman Empire1022 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the Roman Empire, and in most ancient societies, the role and status of woman has been obscured by the bias of ancient male writers. Just as women are viewed in ancient Greece, and Imperial China, women in the Roman Empire were viewed as inferior to men. In the Roman Empire it was believed that women should be under the control of a guardian, which controls the aspects of her life. This guardian could be her father, husband, or a male relative (Nystrom). Marriage in the Roman Empire was not romanticRead MoreChina vs. Rome Compare and Contrast1390 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChina and Rome China and Rome were astonishing civilizations that managed to advance technology and civilations. Both civilizations were rapidly growing and making changes to the world. The two cultures were pretty similar, yet very different. Their religions were something to be modest about. When it came to religion it helped the decline of both societies, by religion changing. When it came to technology though, its change is what caused the societies to flourish. As for education the bothRead MoreWomen During The Roman Empire921 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAside from ancient Greece and China, there has also been much diversity and contradictory evidence for women in the Roman Empire. On one hand, the cultural assumption was that women were inferior to men and they should obey their husbands or fathers. While, on the other hand, there is scattered evidence that women were engaged in commerce, heading of the household, and influencing politics. An approach to this second assumption was suggested that their participation by women in all these affairsRead MoreThe Roman And The Punic Wars1151 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1. Long Essay The ancient Rome Empire raises their empire by coquetting many lands by fighting and coquetting them. One on the things that made Rome special was their expansion of the territory. What was different of other empires is, when they conquer a foreign land, they let them keep their traditions and their own culture. Instead of teaching them religion and make them be a Roman, they made them swear fealty to Rome. Roma wanted to spread their territory and their trading zone. One example ofRead MoreThe Role Of Women During The Han Dynasty And The Roman Empire1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe role of women in both the the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire women was ambiguous. The Han Dynasty ruled from 206 BCEÃ¢â¬â220 CE. Much later came the Roman Empire, which lasted from 27 CE-476 CE. In these civilizations, elite women were treated very differently than men because of their gender. Women had limited political freedom, their marriages were not loving partnerships, and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s social expectations oppressed them. Although the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire were separated by many milesRead MoreEssay on The History of Punishment1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSince the oldest civilizations till Today punishment has impact the world and how people live their life. Throughout generation to generation civilizations, countries have grown in crimes and punishment. Ancient punishments were harsher than TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s punishments. In Middle ages, Ancient Greece and Rome, Mesopotamia theyÃ¢â¬â¢d cruel punishments that were more harsher, severe than TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s. In the oldest civilizations people were inhumane. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢d committed the most brutal punishments. Today, we have jails andRead MoreSimilarities Between Rome And Han China990 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhile Rome and Han China had similar methods of imperial consolidation concerning their patriarchal societies and upper-classes, the two differed greatly in their bureaucracies, policies regarding conquered peoples, and labor systems. Patriarchy was a prominent aspect of the societies of both empires. The family unit in Rome was ruled by paterfamilias, the male head, and women were thought of as children needing the care of their fathers or husbands and were confined to household duties. Women hadRead MoreWomen and Their Roles in History2647 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesMost women throughout history have made an impact or had a significant role in the society of their time. These women of ancient civilizations have led us to the roles of women in our society today. They have boosted the standing of women in society and have tried to be individuals. In some time periods, women were controlled completely by men and in others they were moderately controlled by men. This paper will focus on the roles of women in certain areas. The civilizations that I analyzed
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Questions: 1. Table: GDP Data for Countries A and B Country A Country B $billions $billions Household Consumption 150 150 Government Purchases 250 250 Transfer payments 50 60 Total Gross Fixed Capital Expenditures 50 150 Change in Inventories 50 -50 Exports 40 40 Imports 20 20 Consider the data in table 1 for two countries: A and B. a. Calculate the GDP for both countries. b. Discuss the usefulness of these data in deciding which, if any, of these two countries is likely to be experiencing an economic recession. 2. Obtain Australia's real GDP and CPI data from 1980 to 2015. Calculate the annual growth rates of real GDP and inflation and graph both series together. Is/are there some interesting or salient relationship(s) between those two series? Provide and discuss plausible economic explanation(s), including change in economic events and change in government policy, for the relationship(s) you identified. 3. Obtain Australia's real GDP and unemployment data from 1980 to 2015. Calculate the growth rates of real GDP and unemployment and graph both series together. Is/are there some interesting or salient relationship(s) between those two series? Provide and discuss plausible economic explanation(s), including change in economic events and change in government policy, for the relationship(s) you identified. Answers: (1). a). Calculation of GDP for both Countries GDP can be calculated with the use of following formula: GDP = C + G + I + (X - M) Where, C = Consumption, G = Government spending I = Investment X = Export M= Import The below table shows the calculation of GDP for both countries Country A $billions Country B $billions Household Consumption (C) 150 150 Government Spending or purchase (G) 250 250 Gross Private Investment: Total Gross Fixed Capital Expenditures Change in Inventories 100 50 50 100 150 -50 Exports 40 40 Imports 20 20 GDP 520 520 Working Note: 1. Transfer payments were not used in the calculation of GDP for both countries. It is because these are excluded from the calculation of GDP (Asian Development Bank, 2007). 2. Secondly, change in inventories is positive for country A, therefore the value is added in the investment while it is decreased in the case of country B, so it is reduced from gross investment amount. It is clear from the above table that both country A and B has GDP of 520 billion dollars. b). Calculation of GDP is useful in deciding that if any of the country is likely to be experiencing an economic recession. It is because the GDP or Gross Domestic Product provides a tool to measure the goods and services monetary value, which are produced by a country during a particular year (Sexton, 2007). It is a significant data point that shows whether a country or economy is growing or contracting. For both countries, it is assessed that the GDP is 520 billion dollars. At the same time, it is also evaluated that household consumption is 150 billion dollars, government purchases are 250 billion dollars, investment is 100 billion dollars, and net exports is 20 billion dollars. These indicate positive value of consumer spending, as well as government and investment spending (International Monetary Fund, 2009). Thus, it can be stated that both countries have not potential to experience an economic recession. In addition, if in future periods, the GDP of both countries and any of the country decreases, it is likely that countries or the country can experience an economic recession. The recession can be found in both these countries due to several reasons such as low output growth, high inflation, increase in oil prices, and the debt crises (Clift, 2009). It is because these factors can reduce the household consumption, government spending, and investment. Moreover, there should faster growth in the current GDP in both countries to avoid the situation of recession. It is because the decrease in the GDP growth presents reduction in the income level as well as savings among the people, which can cause to the situation of recession. It can also be stated that due to the decrease in consumer purchasing power in both these countries or any of the country, the company is likely to face the situation of recession (Boone and Kurtz, 2012). (2). Explanation over the Relationship between Real GDP and Inflation GDP, exchange rate, unemployment, inflation, current account balance, etc. are some major indicators to access the economic conditions of county at micro level. The assessment of relationship between real GDP and inflation is performed in the context of Australia by obtaining data regarding these factors. For accessing these two major economic factors, growth rates are calculated for over the last 36 years. Through the application of below formula, data from 1980 to 2015 is used to calculate growth rates of Australian GDP and inflation rate. (Tucker, 2010) By using above formula, GDP volume and CPI index value is used to calculate GDP and inflation growth rate respectively in the context of Australia. The below table depicts growth rate value for these economic indicators, which are obtained through the application of the given formula: Year Annual GDP Growth Rate Annual CPI Growth Rate 1980 7.0 10.1 1981 4.2 9.5 1982 -0.4 11.4 1983 -0.2 10.0 1984 6.5 4.0 1985 5.1 6.7 1986 1.9 9.1 1987 5.7 8.5 1988 4.5 7.2 1989 4.2 7.5 1990 1.4 7.3 1991 -1.3 3.2 1992 3.0 1.0 1993 4.2 1.8 1994 4.6 2.0 1995 3.5 4.6 1996 3.9 2.6 1997 3.9 0.2 1998 4.9 0.9 1999 4.1 1.5 2000 3.5 4.5 2001 2.5 4.4 2002 4.0 3.0 2003 3.0 2.7 2004 3.9 2.3 2005 3.2 2.7 2006 2.7 3.6 2007 4.6 2.3 2008 2.5 4.4 2009 1.8 1.8 2010 2.4 2.9 2011 2.6 3.3 2012 3.6 1.8 2013 2.0 2.5 2014 2.6 2.5 2015 2.5 1.5 (ABS, 2016) On the basis of above data, below graph is developed and used to identify the relationship between the GDP and inflation growth rates: From the above graph, it can be stated the relationship of GDP and inflation in Australia is quite variant within the period from 1980 to 2015. It is identified from the above graph that in few years, GDP of this country depicts downwards trend, while inflation rate grew strongly over the same time period. Within the year 1982 and 1983, the growth rate of GDP was negative but on the other side, inflation rate grew by 11.35 and 10.04 percent respectively (ABA, 2016). It shows extreme level of negative relationship between the GDP and inflation rate. The government policy of liberalize economic system has influenced this relationship at the greater extent. For boosting production level in this country, government adopted expansionary policy to enhance the money supply and to reduce the unemployment. It made the borrowing cheap that encougred businesses and customers to spend more. Due to increase in consumer spending, demand of goods and services raised that created shortage in supply side. This situation laid to the decrease in the volume of production and increase in the prices. In long run, expansionary monetary policy of government influences the price level in the economy that leads to the situation of high inflation (McTaggart et al., 2012). Due to increase in prices, demand declines that tend businesses to produce less, which causes decrease in employment opportunities and to GDP rate. Hence, monetary of government is Australia has played critical role in influencing the price level in the economy that consequently influences demand and supply. Apart from this, it is also identified from the obtained series of Australian GDP and inflation growth rates that there is positive relationship has occurred between these two indicators within the few years. In 1996, fiscal measures were used by the government. Expansionary fiscal policy of Australian government has played critical role in increasing the GDP and decreasing the inflation growth rates significantly. For stimulating economic growth, government reduced taxes rates for the businesses and individuals. This situation laid to the increase in investment among businesses to produce more and disposable income. In the short run, it caused increase in employment opportunities that boosted the economic growth and declined the rate of inflation (Mankiw, 2014). During 1997 to 1999, GDP rate grew, while inflation rate declined at the significant level. In long run, expansionary fiscal policy caused the increase in price level as it caused upwards shift in the aggregate demand in the economy. Due to the tax cut, disposable income of people raised that caused increase in spending power that pushed the demand on the upward side. Increase in demand played critical role in increasing the level of prices in the economy (Veldkamp, 2011). In the year 2000 and 2001, inflation rate increased significantly in Australian economy than the GDP. This indicates the importance of governments monetary and fiscal policies in influencing the relationship of a nations major economic indicators and to manage the macroeconomic activities in the significant manner. The government and central bank (Reserve Bank of Australia) of Australia has used monetary and fiscal policies as tool to manage the macroeconomic environment and to boost the economic growth over time (RBA, 2016). From the obtained growth rates, it is also identified that the relationship between the growth rate for the inflation and GDP has changed highly frequently. This is observed that after the global financial crisis of 2008, the relationship between inflation and GDP became highly volatile. In few years, inflation rate of this country declined in compare to the GDP, whereas sometime, opposite situation has occurred. This indicates that global financial crisis has reduced the influence of government policies that caused to the volatility in the relationships of GDP and inflation (Economy Watch, 2010). The other major economic event is currency devaluation. The value of Australian dollar has declined significantly due to which, exports increased significantly than the imports. It caused increased in real GDP and demand both. This situation caused demand pull inflation. An increase in export than the import in an economy improves current account balance and reduces balance of payment defic it. The same situation is observed from the obtained data set for the Australian economy. The growth rates of GDP and inflation shows movement in the same direction after the financial crisis (Convict Creations, 2015). Thus, it can be stated on the basis of obtained series for the two major economic indicators that economic events and government policies has great influence on the relationship of two factors. (3). Explanation over the Relationship between Real GDP and Unemployment Real GDP and unemployment are the major macroeconomic indicators of a country. By analyzing relationship of these factors, economic health of a country can be analyzed significantly. For evaluating the relation of these two factors in the context of Australian economy, data regarding real GDP volume and number of jobless person in an economy is obtained to calculate growth rates (Mankiw, 2014). Data is obtained for the 1980 to 2015 as it is effective to understand the relationship trend among the real GDP and unemployment variables of the economy of this country. Growth rates are calculated by using the given formula: The below table depicts growth rates for the Australian real GDP and unemployment, which are calculated through the above formula: Year Annual GDP Growth Rate Annual Unemployment Growth Rate 1980 7.0 1.1 1981 4.2 0.4 1982 -0.4 54.8 1983 -0.2 1.9 1984 6.5 -9.1 1985 5.1 -5.8 1986 1.9 11.0 1987 5.7 -5.4 1988 4.5 -9.2 1989 4.2 -11.1 1990 1.4 39.9 1991 -1.3 28.5 1992 3.0 7.6 1993 4.2 -3.1 1994 4.6 -15.8 1995 3.5 -7.0 1996 3.9 6.9 1997 3.9 -8.4 1998 4.9 -8.5 1999 4.1 -5.1 2000 3.5 -5.4 2001 2.5 11.5 2002 4.0 -8.0 2003 3.0 -7.2 2004 3.9 -8.7 2005 3.2 2.2 2006 2.7 -7.4 2007 4.6 -3.3 2008 2.5 7.6 2009 1.8 22.2 2010 2.4 -9.3 2011 2.6 7.2 2012 3.6 5.9 2013 2.0 8.9 2014 2.6 5.4 2015 2.5 -3.8 (ABS, 2016) On the basis of the data of above table, below line graph is obtained to understand the relationship of these macroeconomic variables more effectively in the Australian context. From the above graph, it can be stated that there is negative relationship exist between GDP and unemployment rates in the context of Australian economy. In the year 1980, government developed liberalizes trade policy that laid to the development of free economy. Due to this, trade activities within this country increased significantly (Igan et al., 2013). In this situation, firms are tended to produce more for satisfying the demand in the economy. It caused increment in the job opportunities. The influence of this policy of Australian government on the relationship between the GDP growth rate and unemployment is clearly depicted in above graph. In the growing phase, aggregate demand raises that causes increase of production level in the economy and consequently job opportunities (Gwartney et al, 2014). The other policy of Australian government was deregulation of banking industry as it also caused decrease in GDP and increase in unemployment after the year 1982. For boosting economic growth, government eased entry of international banks and permitted them to set interest rates. This economic event made the banking industry of Australia highly competitive that caused decline in interest rates. Due to this, availability of cheap finance increased that encouraged businesses to invest and produce more. In short run, high production generated job opportunities that caused increase in demand. In long run, this situation became responsible for causing recession. Higher demand than the supply caused high prices that created cost push inflation in the economy (McEachern, 2013). In the recession phase, trade and demand both declined at considerable level that tended businesses to produce less. For surviving in the recession period, businesses adopted cost reduction activities and job cut is one from them. This caused decline in GDP that has reduced generation of employment opportunities (Tucker, 2010). The government policy of decreasing interest rate caused negative relationship between the GDP and unemployment in long run. In addition to this, privatization policy of the Australian government has also played crucial role in influencing the relationship between GDP and unemployment rates. Privatization in an economy causes competition for the resources that causes generation of several job opportunities. The same situation occurred in Australian economy during 1993 to 2000 due to privatization. In this period, GDP grew slightly, whereas significant decline incurred in unemployment rates (Carlin and Soskice, 2014). In this way, privatization economic event in Australian economy also caused negative relation between the GDP and unemployment variables. Similarly, negative relationship is also determined from the obtained data for the unemployment and GDP rates. After the global economic financial crisis, government of Australia adopted expansionary fiscal policy that also influenced GDP and unemployment level in this country. In this policy, government reduced tax rated for the corporate and individuals. This causes increase in the disposable income that contributes in increasing consumption. It leads to the upward movement in the aggregate demand. Fiscal policy of government in Australia caused increase in the real GDP, which means increase in the production level (Aoki and Yoshikawa, 2011). For producing more, they demanded more workers that caused decline in the unemployment level. It boosted the economic growth and this situation laid to the decline in job losses. In addition to this, expansionary monetary policy also played crucial role in generating negative relationship between GDP and unemployment level of this country. After the recession period of 1991 and 2008, government of Australia has focused in increasing money supply by reducing the interest rate. Monetary policy facilitated reduction in the cost of borrowings that encouraged people to spend more (Commonwealth of Australia, 2016). In this situation, aggregate demand raised that caused increases in GDP and reduction in demand deficient unemployment. Thus, it can be stated that GDP and unemployment has negative relations with the each other. Government policies have contributed in boosting economic growth and reducing unemployment. It created negative relationship between the real GDP and unemployment level of this country. References Aoki, M. and Yoshikawa, H. (2011) Reconstructing macroeconomics: a perspective from statistical physics and combinatorial stochastic processes. UK: Cambridge University Press. Asian Development Bank (2007) Key Indicators 2007, Volume 38. Asian Development Bank. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2016) Statistics. Boone, L. E. and Kurtz, D. L. (2012). Contemporary Marketing, 2013 Update. USA: Cengage Learning. Carlin, W. and Soskice, D. (2014) Macroeconomics: Institutions, instability, and the financial system. USA: Oxford University Press. Clift, J. (2009) Finance Development, June 2009. International Monetary Fund.
Wednesday, April 8, 2020
Introduction From the moral and ethical perspectives, the healthcare industry is vital for sustaining lives. Without the presence of adequate structures of health care in any given society, the people in that society are bound to succumb to different ailments. This is to mean that healthcare is the central tenet of the welfare of any society.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Delivering Ethical Health Care specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The level of productivity of a given people is dependent on the state of healthcare in the society in which the people prevail. Therefore, the healthcare industry is paramount in any nation. This means that all the stakeholders in the healthcare industry must pay a lot of attention to the operations in the industry. Operations in the healthcare industry have to be maintained at a level where the healthcare industry attains the potential to save as many lives as possible. However, research has denoted that the healthcare industry is one of the most complex industries in the world. The complexity of the healthcare industry is based on the diversity in the number of healthcare conditions and the healthcare needs for these ailments, the moral dilemmas in the provision of healthcare, the modalities of delivering healthcare by the healthcare personnel, and the disposal of bio-hazards, which are the causative factors for a substantial number of ailments. According to Mitchell (2013), delivery of health care mostly revolves around the relationship between the healthcare provider and the patient. The ability of the healthcare professional to deliver health care services to the patient is, in turn, dictated by a number of factors. Among these factors are the regulatory policies in the healthcare industry in a given country, the physical and mental well being of the physician or nurse, the nature of ailment in question, and the working relationship between the physician and other healthcare providers in the given healthcare institution. These are just but a few of the factors from which the ethical questions arise. Brown (2013) observed that the other critical concern in the healthcare industry is the level at which moral responsibility needs to be exercised by the healthcare professionals and the people who are ailing. The result is one question: How should the healthcare industry prepare to capture all these challenges and maintain a high level of ethical stance?Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lesser consideration of ethics by the stakeholders in the healthcare industry results in higher levels of vulnerability of the ailing and the healthy population in a given society. Responsibility, which is a key step in the pathway to the delivery of ethical healthcare, begins with the effort of all the stakeholders (Brown, 2013). According to Bayer (n.d.), there is a need to embrace collective responsibility. In this sense, the main stakeholders have to engage the entire population for the sake of minimizing cases of diseases in the society. This observation is based on the fact that social and personal values play a critical role in promoting desirable health habits. This, in turn, secures the population from a number of ailments. This paper explores the modalities of delivering ethical healthcare. The paper immensely focuses on the legal, social and ethical perspectives on the delivery of health care. These three aspects are important in the establishment of moral grounds in the delivery of desirable health care services in any given society. All these aspects are explored in relation to the delivery of ethical healthcare in the United Arab Emirates. The paper seeks to answer a number of questions concerning the delivery of ethical healthcare. These are: What nature of a legal framework is critical in the establishment of a desirable environment in the healthcare industry? What are the ethical issues that confront the provision of ethical healthcare and how can they be dealt with by the stakeholders in the healthcare industry? At what level are the different stakeholders in the healthcare industry required to exercise responsibility? Does the healthcare environment in the United Arab Emirates depict success in the provision of ethical healthcare? To what extent has individual responsibility been enhanced in the healthcare industry in the UAE? The paper begins by giving an overview of the ethical stance in the provision of health care services. This is followed by the exploration of the three aspects of ethical healthcare. These aspects are elaborated through a search for the answers to the enlisted questions. Understanding ethics in health care delivery Ethics is a broad subject when it is applied in the healthcare industry. As observed earlier, healthcare services are critical for s ustaining life. Therefore, the quality of health care services is something that ought to be given a lot of attention.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Delivering Ethical Health Care specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the provision of quality health care depends on not only the setup of infrastructure for the provision of health care, but also ensuring that there is a greater linkage between the society and the health care providers. In this way, it becomes easy to capture the social, legal, ethical, moral, and the psychological parameters that play a vital role in improving the delivery of health care services to the population. The balance between these parameters is often ignored, yet it plays a central role in ensuring that the ultimate goal of health care delivery is attained (Brown, 2013). According to BÃ ¦rÃ ¸e and Norheim (2011), the competence of healthcare services is determined by the set of decisions that are made and implemented by different players in the healthcare industry. The full support of health care entails the consideration of aspects of responsibility from all dimensions in the provision of health care, with the main goal of health care being put at the center. The main goal of healthcare is to ensure that as many lives as possible are prevented from either the acquisition of diseases or succumbing to the ailments. Also, an environment that is highly ethical cannot be attained when there is no sensitivity to the moral considerations among all the stakeholders in the healthcare industry. All stakeholders in the healthcare industry must be ready and willing to read from the same script to strike a balance in roles and responsibilities in the delivery of ethical healthcare to the population. It should be noted here that the population is part of the stakeholders since it is considered to be the target of health care services. According to Guedert and S uely (2011), the delivery of healthcare in the contemporary society is confronted by different factors, among them the resource factor and the demand for desirable attitudes by the professionals in the healthcare industry. The healthcare industry is faced with a number of ethical problems. These problems include: the conduct of health professionals, health policies and the socioeconomic issues, relational patterns between the patients and the physicians, complex moral cases in the healthcare industry like the end Ã¢â¬âof-life care, and healthcare education. These problems are broadly grouped, meaning that an exploration of each problem presents a number of other ethical dilemmas (Guedert Suely 2011).Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Mitchell (2013), the provision of health care services at times goes far beyond the skills and competencies of the health care providers. For example, a nurse may choose to work way behind the time that is stipulated in the employment Act only to ensure that the safety of patients under his or her care is guaranteed. In such a case, it can be argued that morality is depicted in the choices that are made by the person and not the aspect of adherence to the law. If the nurse chooses to adhere to the law, then he might as well leave the vulnerable patient to succumb to the injuries as his action at this point is still justified. The aspect of contact between the healthcare professionals and the patients presents a moral situation whereby a moral relationship has to be developed for the well-being of the patient to be attained. However, a number of socioeconomic conditions often prevail in the larger health care industry. These often result in difficulties in embracing mora l relationships in the healthcare industry (Mitchell, 2013). Another dimension of ethics in health care is the individual lifestyles as determinants of the state of healthcare for each individual. Moving away from the philosophical view that life is sacred and ought to be protected at all costs, it is argued that the moral responsibility of healthy living lies with individuals. In a similar sense, it is argued that it is within the moral right of individuals to make choices, some of which may pose health risks to their lives. However, in such cases the healthcare professionals can still make choices both from their personal initiatives or from responsibility to safeguard the lives of people who make decisions that pose a threat to their health (Brown, 2013). According to Jallinoja et al. (2007), the perception of healthcare professionals on patients is a factor that has gained significance in nursing ethics. This comes from a considerable rise in the number of health care conditions that are coming from the nature of lifestyles that are embraced by patients. Ethical concerns arise over the habits of people and the scale at which such habits can be reshaped into healthy habits. Legal, ethical and social aspects of healthcare delivery in the United Arab Emirates Health care delivery is a critical component in the UAE as one of the countries in the world that is experiencing economic transformation that seeks to place the country among the middle income economies in the world. A research by Margolis, et al. (2003) indicated that most people in the United Arab Emirates are satisfied with the primary health care services that are provided by healthcare institutions in the country. This can be taken as an indicator of the consideration of quality standards in the discharge of health care services in the country. However, it cannot be taken as an indicator of ethical considerations in the discharge of health care services across the healthcare industry in the country . Quality assurance programs have not been improved in the country to enhance the quality of health care outcomes in the country (Margolis et al., 2003). Gaps are still eminent in the delivery of ethical healthcare in the United Arab Emirates as far as quality and ethical consideration are concerned. Several policies have already been developed in the UAE to help in fostering an inclusive environment in the delivery of health care services in the country. One of the policies that catch the attention of many people is the policy on cultural awareness and sensitivity in health care service delivery. This policy was informed by the fact that the country has a culturally diverse population. The diversity ranges from ethnicity to race, religion, and language among others. This policy, which has a legal force, was developed to help address the problem of cultural diversity and its effects on the delivery of quality health care to all people in the UAE. All healthcare institutions in Abu D habi are required to enforce the policy to address the legal and ethical conflicts that exist in the health care delivery in the country (Health Authority Ã¢â¬â Abu Dhabi, 2007). According to EL-Amouri and OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill (2011), sensitivity to the culture is a social perspective of dealing with the challenges and concerns that are mostly raised by the people in the country. Among the provisions in the policy is that all institutions that provide direct health care services to the population must offer interpretation services. This is meant to enhance these institutionsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to offer medical services to everybody in the country through the elimination of the language barrier. The dignity and worth of people in the healthcare industry are determined by the ability of the people to communicate and foster moral relationships with the physicians and nurses. As a matter of precedence, the policy also touches on the issue of value, which ascertains the desire to establish a h ealthcare environment that is responsive to issues of humane treatment and dignity of all the patients (Health Authority Ã¢â¬â Abu Dhabi, 2007). Picturing this from Guedert and Suely (2011) observation about the ethical challenges that face healthcare professionals in the fair discharge of health care services, it can be argued that there is a sense of responsibility by the stakeholders in the UAE healthcare industry. The policy on culture depicts a high level of consideration of the differences in the social environment. These variations form part of the complexities in embracing ethics in the delivery of medical services to the population. The right of every individual to access health care services is in most cases impeded by social barriers. Ethical codes of professional behavior for the healthcare professionals are clearly enlisted in the legal framework that guides the discharge of medical services across the UAE cities. The laws do not only stipulate the roles of the healt hcare professionals, but they also bring out the expected behavioral attributes of the health care practitioners to attain quality health care. This kind of healthcare is characterized by the provision of ethical and patient-driven care for all the people within the areas where the law applies. This helps in improving the competency of health care providers as depicted by the indicators. Among the provisions in the laws that have been developed by the Dubai Health Authority is the need for medical professionals in the country to pay attention to high moral standards when discharging their duties. These moral standards focus on issues like consent, truthfulness, conflict of interest, confidentiality, allocation of health care resources, and the interaction of healthcare professionals with the pharmaceutical industry (Dubai Health Authority, n.d.). Healthcare providers are exposed to certain ailments from the patients in the course of discharging their duties. According to Zaidi, Grif fiths and Levack (2012), this is not only a sociological concern, but also a factor that informs policy in the healthcare industry in the UAE. There are dangerous strains of viruses and bacteria that can be passed from the patient to the health care providers. Examples are Hepatitis C and the HIV virus. Exposure and real contact with these strains of viruses by the healthcare professionals often results in unprecedented levels of stress and stigma among the health care providers. This, in turn, jeopardizes the ability of healthcare providers to effectively discharge health care services to the population (Zaidi, Griffiths Levack, 2012). Most of the healthcare providers who are exposed to dangerous strains of viruses often fear to report these cases because of what they term as hostile policies. One of the fears is that health care providers who are non-citizens are at risk of being deported back to their countries of origin if they are detected with HIV and Hepatitis C, even when t hese diseases are acquired in the line of duty (Zaidi, Griffiths Levack, 2012). With the high number of health care professionals fearing to report such cases, the lives of the patients are further put at risk. This means that the United Arab Emirates, just like other countries like New Zealand, needs to implement policies that will see the development of healthcare schemes for the healthcare professionals who are infected with diseases when attempting to save lives. This is a moral responsibility of the government and other institutions that are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that there is quality and ethical health care delivery in the UAE. As observed earlier, the healthcare industry is quite complex. Raven (2002) observed that the separation of business from organizational ethical responsibility is one of the most challenging issues in delivering ethical healthcare in the UAE. This issue invigorated a debate in the early years of the first decade of the 20th centur y. Companies that are engaged in the delivery of healthcare products need to embrace social responsibility. Social responsibility is aimed at eliminating conflicts of interest in the delivery of healthcare products and services across the United Arab Emirates. This means that the government of the UAE ought to have established a ground that favors fair and open procurement procedures. Through sound procurement procedures, it is easy to lock out unethical practices in the industry like the delivery of drugs that have been pirated. An example of the commitment of the United Arab Emirates to embrace the ethical delivery of healthcare is the 2001 cancellation of a $500,000 contract that entailed pirated drugs. The main weakness in the enforcement of copyright laws in the UAE health sector is that the country lacks a law to protect patents and copyrights in the healthcare sector. However, a ministerial decree that was issued by the Ministry of Health has been helpful as far as the protec tion of rights for the investors in the industry is concerned. The decree has aided in improving the healthcare environment in the country by attracting external investors in the industry (Stier, 2013). Ethical and standard healthcare begins with quality practices in other industries like the food industry. If ethical standards are not embraced by the food industry, then the citizens are bound to be exposed to a lot of ailments that come from the consumption of non-standard foods. One critical thing to note about the delivery of food in the United Arab Emirates is the 2005 law that was passed and saw the establishment of a Food Control Authority in Abu Dhabi. The mandate of this authority is to ensure that the food that is delivered to the population adheres to international safety and health standards. Consumers need to be protected because they do not have the power to determine the quality of the products that they consume. Most of these products are bound to have a direct effect on the health of the consumer. Most food companies, which are often profit oriented, take advantage of the fact that consumers have no ability to determine the contents of what they consume. This implies a lack of morality and responsibility. Having such an authority in place is likely to restore sanity in the food industry and cushion the consumers from the likelihood of consuming unsafe food (General Secretariat of the Executive Council, n.d.). Analysis of issues According to Bean (2011), most of the ethical issues in the healthcare industry revolve around three areas. These are: clinical practices, organizational practices, and specific issues that occur within the practices in the clinical operations or the organizational operations. The most resounding question as far as the delivery of ethical healthcare is concerned has been how to separate organizational from clinical ethics. However, this is a difficult question to answer considering the fact that clinical practices are fo unded on organizational practices. The clinical environment is largely determined by the precedents that are set at the organizational level. This implies that the actions and behaviors of individual health care providers are largely shaped by the policies that exist in the healthcare industry. What has come out in the paper is that the embrace of ethics begins with the establishment of a legal framework that governs the behavior and conduct of the stakeholders in the healthcare industry. Ethical standards are highly embraced when there is a legal force. A legal force helps in controlling the behavior of the players in the healthcare industry. The other thing is that legislation in the healthcare industry should be diverse; not only focusing on the conduct of the healthcare professionals as noted in the case of the UAE. For the legislation to be effective and result in an ethically oriented environment in the healthcare sector, it has to be accompanied by social policies. Social pol icies play a greater role in responding to the personal and psychological issues that emerge in the healthcare industry. Such issues are eminent in the discharge of patient centered services by the healthcare professionals. Conclusion The contemporary healthcare industry is confronted with a lot of challenges. These challenges range from legal, socioeconomic, technical, to ethical concerns. Research has denoted that the needs in the healthcare industry are extraneous, a factor that most often slows down the efforts of the healthcare providers in meeting the healthcare needs of the population. Delivery of ethical healthcare in a country starts with the development of an environment that highly values life. This means that every course in the healthcare industry should be aligned with the main objective of healthcare delivery, which is safeguarding lives at all costs. Therefore, health care stakeholders need to approach health care from a broader perspective to capture the ethical con siderations in the delivery of health care. This implies that there should be a focus on the systems of delivery, beginning with the suppliers. The government of the United Arab Emirates needs to ensure that there are adequate policies to govern the supply of medical products to ensure that the suppliers meet the desirable standards. This is critical in the delivery of quality health care. The ability of healthcare providers and professionals to meet the needs of the patients and safeguard their lives begins with the ability of the professionals to meet their needs. The needs in this case include physical, socioeconomic, and psychological needs. This is based on the nature of work that is done by the health care providers. Several policies have been developed to help improve the ethical stance in the delivery of health care in the United Arab Emirate. However, most of the policies seem to be one sided. They mostly favor the patient and leave out the health care professionals, yet th ey are critical in sustaining the lives of patients through the delivery of health care services. The government of the United Arab Emirates, especially the Ministry of Health, needs to come up with polices and pieces of legislation that capture the needs and concerns of patients and healthcare providers. Most important, there is the need to develop policies and laws that safeguard the needs of the healthcare professionals. This is an enabling factor in the development of a highly ethical environment in health care. This will, in turn, enable the embrace of high moral standards in the healthcare industry. References BÃ ¦rÃ ¸e, K., Norheim, O. (2011). Mapping out structural features in clinical care calling for ethical sensitivity: a theoretical approach to promote ethical competence in healthcare personnel and Clinical Ethical Support Services (CESS). Bioethics, 25(7), 394-402. Bayer, R. Module 6: Ethics of health promotion and disease prevention. Web. Bean, S. (2011). Navigating the murky intersection between clinical and organizational ethics: a hybrid case taxonomy. Bioethics, 25(6), 320-325. Brown, R. C. H. (2013). Moral responsibility for (un)healthy behaviour. Journal of Medical Ethics. doi:10.1136/medethics-2012-100774 Dubai Health Authority. Health regulation department: scope of practice for general practitioner. Web. EL-Amouri, S., OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill, S. (2011). Supporting cross-cultural communication and culturally competent care in the linguistically and culturally diverse hospital settings of UAE. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, 39(2), 240-255. General Secretariat of the Executive Council.Ã Social Human Resources. Web. Guedert, J. M., Suely, G. (2011). Ethical problems in pediatrics: what does the setting of care and education show us? BMC Medical Ethics, 13(2), 2-9. Health Authority Ã¢â¬â Abu Dhabi (2007). Policy on cultural sensitivity and awareness in healthcare facilities. Web. Jallinoja, P., Absetz, P., Kuronen, R., Nissinen, A., Talja, M., Uutela, A., Patja, K. (2007). The dilemma of patient responsibility for lifestyle change: Perceptions Among primary care physicians and nurses. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 25, 244-249. Margolis, S. A., Al-marzouq, S., Revel, T., Reed, R. (2003). Patient satisfaction with primary health care services in the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Quality Health Care, 15(3), 241-249. Mitchell, B. (2013). Medical ethics and moral habitus. Ethics and Medicine, 29(2), 69-70. Raven, C. (2002). The intersection of health care and organizational ethics. Web. Stier, K. (2013). MerckÃ¢â¬â¢s Dubai Ethics Center. Web. Zaidi, M. A., Griffiths, R., Levack, W. (2012). Healthcare providersÃ¢â¬â¢ perspectives on occupational exposure to HIV: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of AIDS Clinic Research, 3(9), 1-2. This research paper on Delivering Ethical Health Care was written and submitted by user Julianne Kirk to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Risking Everything for Body Image Free Online Research Papers Images of models are everywhere. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies are used to sell everything from coffee, cellular phones to yachts. Actresses and models are becoming thinner and thinner as well as younger. Magazine articles have reported actresses fainting while on the set from lack of food. Television commercials promote the next magic wonder diet pill, diet centers and the promise of a perfect life after they lose those last nagging five pounds. Few realize that these perfect bodies are created by younger and younger women and with the creative help of retouched photographs. The number of women and girls who look for an underweight body is reaching epidemic proportions and they risk potentially lethal health consequences. History of Body Image and Obesity 1908: A body-revealing style is introduced for women by French designer Paul Poiret. This sends a body fat is unfashionable message. 1940s: Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. publishes new height-weight tables, sending the message that it is unacceptable to gain weight with age. 1945: The bikini is invented by Lewis Reard, a Paris fashion designer. Bikinis grow in popularity throughout the year, culminating in the Ã¢â¬Ë90s TV show Ã¢â¬Å"Baywatch.Ã¢â¬ 1951: The US government begins a campaign against obesity. 1956: Fitness becomes popular with the Jack LaLanne show premiering on television. 1960s: British fashion model Twiggy begins a new rain-thin faze with fashion. This later revitalized in the 1990s by Kate Moss. 1968: Erwin Stillman and Samm Sinclair Baker begin the first of many diet fads with the best selling book The Doctors Quick Weight Loss Diet. 1972: Robert C. Atkins becomes a best selling author of the Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution. This book begins the extremely popular low-carbohydrate diet. 1983: Karen Carpenter a 32 year-old pop idol dies of anorexia nervosa. 1994: 51,072 liposuction procedures are conducted as reported by The American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. 1996: It is estimated that 8 million Americans suffer from anorexia, bulimia or both as reported by National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated. 1996: The Body Mass Index (BMI) becomes the set definition of obesity. Media Influence Images of the ideal female beauty are unattainable for all but a very limited number of women. When surveying women in college about their attempts to manage their weight through dieting, 91% admitted to attempting to control or manage their weight and 22% dieted always or often (Kurth et al., 1995). Often-times these college women use unhealthy methods of weight control including starving themselves, limiting their number of meals, excessive exercise, diet pills, laxative abuse, and self-induced vomiting. This preoccupation with being super skinny is not exclusive to adults either. Statistics show that 42% of the 1st-3rd grade populations of girls want to be thinner (Collins, 1991). Additionally, 81% of 10 year-old girls are frightened of being overweight (Mellin et al., 1991). These efforts are supported by the front covers of magazines that include messages about how to change a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s bodily appearance, whether by diet, exercise or cosmetic surgery. We have been taught t hat the only beautiful figure is one with less than 10% body fat. Research reveals that the average American woman is on average 5-6 inches shorter and 15% 23% heavier than actresses and models. Given these startlingly statistics, it is no surprise that an approximate 95% of women are anxious or depressed about their weight. Runway Standards The issue of models becoming alarmingly thin has made it to the runways of Madrid. There are now requirements that state a model must be at least 16 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of at least 18. BMI is a calculation that measures body fat based on height and weight. The ban on skinny women has come as runway organizers move toward a healthier image. This move has been celebrated by new and upcoming models who are literally starving themselves to death as they work toward becoming the next top model and achieve a multimillion dollar contract. The Madrid council, who instituted these changes, has also arranged for medical treatment for those models that have a BMI of 16 or less. Brazil and Argentina have followed suit and London is expected to do so later this month. The decision to ban ultra thin models is a positive move for teens everywhere, as these role models present an unrealistic and unhealthy body image for teenagers. Dr. Cynthia Kapphahan of CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s Lucile Packard ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Hospital at Stanford advises that, Ã¢â¬Å"Kids are incredibly affected by media images, and models are still held up as the Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬â¢ standard.Ã¢â¬ When teenagers by pass their family and look to models as role models, an unrealistic and perhaps unachievable standard is set. Genetics Within the United States, over 60 million adults are considered to be obese. This means they are at least 20% above their ideal weight. Obesity is caused by controllable factors such as lifestyle and environment as well as physiological factors like genetics. Genetics helps determine your natural weight range, but you have some control over where you fall within that range, says Edward Abramson, PhD, an expert on obesity, dieting, and weight disorders and the author of Body Intelligence. Studies have determined that genetic factors are not the lone cause of the large increase in childhood obesity; however they are believed to influence oneÃ¢â¬â¢s weight much like environment. A person reared in an environment of little exercise, high-fat foods and a genetic disposition towards obesity, is likely to become obese. This is why obese parents often have obese children. Studies conducted with identical and fraternal twins raised separately, suggest that 70% of the variation in BMI may be genetically based in origin. So do not aim for a size 0, aim for health: if obesity is a family trait, high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and other illnesses could be as well. Exercise is fundamental to maintaining a healthy body weight, try using the stairs instead of the elevator, and make it a point to get up and move around every hour. In short, take care of the body that one was born with. A healthy body is not necessarily a thin body, these are two different distinctions. Research shows that overweight people who are physically fit can live just as long as or longer than those who are at the ideal weight and not physically fit. Anorexia, a Psychiatric Disorder Anorexia is an eating disorder where people literally starve themselves, sometimes to death. One percent of teenage girls develop anorexia; up to 19% of which may die as a result of anorexia. Anorexics strive for a super thin body due to the warped body image they see in the mirror rather than outside pressure from society. Individuals suffering from anorexia typically experience weight loss that is 15% below their normal body weight. These individuals are very skinny but are convinced that they are overweight, even obese. This weight loss is obtained in many ways, excessive exercise, starvation, laxatives and more. These individuals have an intense fear of becoming fat and as a result their dieting habits take on extreme measures. Typically, adolescent girls are most affected by anorexia. Even after obtaining an extremely thin body, anorexics continue to think that they are overweight. An anorexic will prepare a large meal for family and friends and refuse to eat any of it. The disorder is thought to be most common among people involved in dancing, theater and running. These are activities were thinness is an advantage and highly sought. With proper treatment, anorexia can be overcome. While some peoples desire to be super thin may be explained by anorexia, this alone is not the sole cause. Healthier Food Choices WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s thinner bodies can also be attributed to the prevalence of healthier living and the significant food choices available today. Previously, fast food restaurants did not provide alternative options such as salads, grilled chicken, milk and juice. These options have far less calories and fat than the typical burger, fries and soda typically offered. Changes such as this may seem small; however combined with the opening of other healthier fast food restaurants such as sub sandwich shops and Chinese food, busy families now have choices and options that were previously unavailable to them. These subtle changes can be attributed to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s body image changes. Effective Dieting Healthier food options combined with effective dieting centers like Weight Watchers and Jenny Craig have aided many women across the US in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. This success is due to their holistic approach, support system, weekly weigh-ins and nutritional advice. These programs have also been proven effective in achieving long-term weight loss success and may influence body image perceptions as well. Body Image A womans body image comprises her shape, size and physical appearance. Body images are formed from our experiences, parents, peers, role-models, models, and friends who provide an idea and value of body images. An image is formed from the positive and negative feedback received from people whose opinions matter to us. The way we perceive our own body to fit the cultural image is incorporated as well. Many women have a distorted perception of their bodies. They may look in the mirror and see an overweight body or slightly larger body than what is there. Large thighs, extended abdomen, and a larger buttocks may lead to distress for some women. James Rosen, Ph.D. from the University of Vermont has done studies indicating that women are most dissatisfied with the parts of their bodies between their waist and their knees. Cosmetic surgery and liposuction are the fastest growing medical specialties within cosmetic surgery. Young girls are repeatedly told that they must adapt to so-called Ã¢â¬Å"feminineÃ¢â¬ qualities: skinny, nice personality, perfectly proportioned, nurturing of others, supporting male figures, glowing skin, fabulous makeup as well as model perfect clothing styles and dress. A womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self is so influenced by others opinions and how she sees herself, she puts extra effort in to being the perfect person. Body image includes much more than just weight. Women are constantly bombarded with products that are designed to appeal to vanity. Skin tone, hair color, and hair style are common products. In addition, we are conditioned through the clothing industry to purchase expensive clothing from designers such as Juicy Couture. Conclusion Americans are completely obsessed with diet and weight and this obsession has reached an all time high in magazines, movies, and runaways around the world. The pressure for models and actresses to be super thin is the latest trend. This is a trend that has come and gone throughout the years but is now at a fever pitch. There is no easy answer to the obesity epidemic and maintaining a healthy body image. Body image begins with learning to love what is seen in the mirror, a celebration of our bodies, nourishing our bodies, and the decision to change oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body image not oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body. With a positive body image, one will have a realistic view of size, shape and is therefore more likely to be comfortable with their body. Satisfaction with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body image affects more than body weight alone, it affects emotional health, self-image, stress management, and self-esteem. Essential to developing and maintaining a healthy body image are eating healthy, regular exercise and receiving plenty of rest. Building a healthy lifestyle includes physical activity. Healthy bodies come in variety of sizes and shapes should be nurtured and valued for their individuality and uniqueness. When looking in the mirror appreciate the image and resist the urge to compare oneself to societies and cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal of beauty, look to family and friends for a positive and reinforcing body image, and trust the health advice of medical personnel on obesity. Resist the temptation to use models and actresses as the ideal body and beauty standards. Body images should be a result of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of beauty based on their experience with family, friends and not media images. Unrealistic and unattainable are words that can be used to describe images in the media. Full-bodied is fabulous; it is time to change the perception of beauty! HereÃ¢â¬â¢s to seeing more natural models in magazines, television and movies. Reference List Body mass index (BMI). (2006). Partnership for healthy weight management. Retrieved March 2, 2007, from www.consumer.gov. Collins, J.K., Beumont, P. J., Touyz, S. W., Krass, J., Thompson, P. and Philips, T. (1987). Variability in body shape perception in anorexic, bulimic, obese, and control subjects. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6, 636-638. de Vries, Hilary. (July 2006). Why were at war with our bodies: you hate your hips and worship Madonnas abs. Marie Claire, 13, p78(6). Retrieved February 02, 2007, from Thomson Gale. Gorman, Megan Othersen. (Dec 2005). The good news about being fat: no need to starve yourself down to celeb size this season. Marie Claire, 12, p203(1). Retrieved February 02, 2007, from Thomson Gale. Hutchison, Sue. (October 2006). Hutchison: Link between bony models, anorexic teens isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a fantasy. The Mercury News. Retrieved February 16, 2007 by Mercurynews.com. Kurth, C.L., Krahn, D.D., Nairn, K., and Drewnowski, A. (1995). The severity of dieting and bingeing behaviors in college women: interview validation of survey data, Journal of Psychiatric Research 29 (3) pp. 211-225. Mellin, L. M., Irwin, C. E., Scully, S. (1992). Prevalence of disordered eating in girls: A survey of middle-class children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 92 (7), 851-853. Webster, Jessica, and Marika Tiggemann. (June 2003). The relationship between womens body satisfaction and self-image across the life span: the role of cognitive control. Journal of Genetic Psychology. Retrieved on February 2, 2007 by Thomson Gale. Weiner, Jessica. (Feb 2006). Bod talk: just like clothes and hairstyles, in body types come and go and come back again. CosmoGirl!, 8, p124(6). 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Friday, February 21, 2020
Chief ethical problem(s) - Essay Example My professional life still is not confined to one particular professional field, but in all its manifestations it assumes the existence and the necessity of such personal quality as leadership. Under the leadership I mean the ability and the right of me as a social person to lead a group of other like-minded people towards achieving our mutual goal. Thus I understand my goal as a leader is in creation and realization of effective opportunities in noble ways. Only by using honest and justified instruments while being guided by such human values as respect and confidence, my impact as a leader would be long-termed. Thus, I use professional ethics in everyday life in order to choose what to do while facing a moral issue problem. Using own experience I may say some words about my personal method of aiming at the best solution in the field of leadership. As youÃ¢â¬â¢ve already understood, I have a kind of moral rules set to use in any situation. First of all, I must be sure in society usefulness (not just personal) of what I am doing. Secondly, I must be responsible and sensitive to possible outcomes of my professional activities. That is why I must follow the principle of "competence", which emphasizes that I should be only involved in those professional activity areas in which I have the knowledge, skills, training and experience. These basic ethical principles can be specified for different areas of professional activity by every decent person. But the main trait for leader at any professional field is being a good communicator. You should be able not just to express yourself well both in speaking and in writing, you must remember that a good communicator is a good listener, so you should be very attentive to people you are surrounded as well as to their problems. True leader should be able to support everybody in the company administrating mechanism if it really needs help. And the most important attribute for leader is being critical towards