Thursday, August 27, 2020

Property investment decision making

Property venture dynamic Presentation and foundation Inside the procedure of property venture dynamic, expanding regard for the connection among supportability and business development. The terms ‘sustainability alludes to the connection between condition security and the monetary advancement related with the business society (Ratcliffe et al, 2009). Just as, property industry is thinking about of the business advancement with duty of social and condition. Moreover, the expanding requests for property assts and venture openings that follow the rule of maintainable turn of events. This idea additionally talked about by McNamara (2005) the ecological cordial structure will turn out to be progressively attractive property resource in future years regardless of whether it isn't reflected in their present worth. Along these lines, supportability improvement is assessing the land organization business setting. Curiously, Prudential Property Investment Manager Limited (PRUPIM) is the worldwide land the executives organization with over  £15billion of advantages in excess of 800 properties. In 2007, the organization presented ‘Sustainable Development: A Framework for Decision Making which focused to limit the business chance and boost the market openings (Moore, 2007). Prompts the principle proposition of the report as following; To investigate PRUIM Sustainability Development Framework in the UK land advertise centering upon business park advancement. To fundamentally survey the Sustainability Development Framework comparable to the portfolio the executives of PRUPIM. To fundamentally assess the Sustainability Development Framework regarding, ecological size of advancement and effect on the venture portfolio. To give proposals on improving PRUPIM portfolio so as to upper hand in UK land advertise. Specifically, region of study in the business park portfolio at The Green Park in Reading and The Oxford Science Park in Oxford by utilizing the meeting with two (2) dexterities in land venture and the scholarly distributed written works. The part 1 of this report gives the distributed written works audit which worried to supportability advancement. The report centers around the rule of triple main concern to underline the connection of efficient, natural and social inside the supportability advancement of land portfolio. Besides, the creator received the supportability improvement rules (Sayce et al, 2004) to adjust the evaluation of feasible advancement system of PRUPIM. Moreover, the creator gives business examination of PRUPIM maintainability advancement structure by utilizing PESTLE investigation. Just as, to distinguish the basic achievement elements of the supportability system by utilizing Key Performance Index. Furthermore, the assessment of PRUPIM maintainability system in term of natural, social and monetary setting this will be notice on Chapter 2. The part 3 of the report gives suggestion so as to short to middle of the road term and long haul to usage the maintainability advancement system for PRUPIM in further undertaking speculation. Part 1 Supportability and Real Estate Portfolio Rising of ‘Sustainability to ‘Sustainable Development Supportability has become pivotal natural conversations. At the point when an ecological issueis bantered in the media, there is as often as possible a citation from a researcher or a natural lobbyist saying that the pattern being referred to is â€Å"unsustainable†. The possibility of manageability becomes vital these days. As to, it is substantially more impressive logically than a thought like being â€Å"environmental friendly† (Dresner, 2002).Concept of manageability was likely framed by the World Council of Churched in 1974 in the report of Ecumenical Study Conference on Science and Technology for Human Development (World Council of Churched, 1974). The earthy person proposed for reaction to creating world issue with worried to the earth when individual in numerous pieces of the world experiences absence of food and joblessness. Thusly, the idea of maintainable improvement was advanced by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in 1980 (International of Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1980). Besides, maintainability issue inside the land business has been inspected by various creators. Pivo and McNamara (2005) characterized maintainability and the idea of obligation property speculation (RPI) as to amplify the beneficial outcomes and limit the negative impacts of property possession, the board and advancement on the social request and the indigenous habitat in a manner that is steady with financial specialist fulfillments and solid duties. Francesco and Levy (2008) likewise analyzed this definition inside the others writing, the term â€Å"sustainability† may be seen as giving a structure to receiving venture guideline which give relationship to the monetary, social and the common habitats that successfully use assets for the current and people in the future. As a result, manageability thinks about the three primary components of monetary achievement, social turn of events and natural cordial. With deference of, the social condition, the accentuation is on changing the conduct of land showcase members to turn out to be increasingly mindful of day-today feasible living. Accordingly, supportability is fundamentally significant for more than thirty years the idea has been created by the researchers, the hippies and the social activists. At the underlying phase of the conversation in manageability idea was created to the familiarity with the personal satisfaction for individual, which identified with the social government assistance and normalize of living of things to come age. In addition, supportability in land business has been created under the situation of financial development, condition assurance and social riches thought to expanding benefits and limiting negative effect on the structure proprietors, engineers, and occupiers in term of society obligation and ecological well disposed. Pushing ahead to the term of ‘sustainability advancement as per, Dresner (2002), has been talked about manageability and feasible improvement at long last came to prominences in 1987, when the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development distributed the Brundtland report which recognized the best approach to square the hover of contending requests for ecological insurance and conservative advancement all through the new plan of ‘sustainable turn of events. The outline of the Brundtland report in 1987 has been characterized reasonable advancement as ‘meet the necessities of the present without bargaining the capacity of people in the future to address theirs issues (Dresner, 2002). Curiously, Sayce et al., (2004) additionally have talked about the term of economical improvement turned out to be altogether significant point for some administrations over the twentieth century, following, the Rio de Janeiro assertion in 1992. In this highest point, the speak to of numerous nations over the world consented to the arrangement of standard of supportable turn of events and activities at global, national and neighborhood level. The worldwide plan is a lot of eight primary rules that legislatures ought to be confirm; The central of human rights to the ecological that is adequate to individuals solid and prosperity; The conservation and legitimate utilization of the earth and manufactured condition that benefit to current and people in the future; The support of bio-assorted variety to guarantee eco-framework assurance; The checking of natural gauges and distribution of related data; The earlier assessment of natural effects from the advancement ventures; The all people are educated regarding arranged exercises and offered right to equity; The preservation is coordinated to the arranging and usage of advancement exercises; The co-appointment with other state towards shared usage. Furthermore, Sayce et al., (2004) has been analyzed the eight standards of feasible advancement in size of the mainland and nation level as the European Union and the United Kingdom. As indicated by, the Agenda 21 from the Rio 1992 highest point. The arrangement for finishing the manageability advancement in business as the arrangements of extraordinary difficulties for everybody and in this interim, a mix of administrative enactment, political weight and expanded mindfulness with respect to general society, puts the onus on every expert individuals to direct their business so as to not strife with the aspiration of UK government to advance reasonable turn of events. Reasonable improvement influences to each one of those worried about the creation and upkeep of the fabricated condition. The substance of supportable improvement requires that in all advancement action, due record is taken of both the short and long haul of the action for each one of those influenced. The experts in thi s field have a one of a kind chance and commitment, regardless of whether they are designers, arranging consultants, modelers, contractual workers, building assessors, property operators or financial specialists. One of the key choices for structures that have suggestions for economical improvement is whether to wreck or hold a current structure. Financially, the choice may appear to be moderately straightforward yet on the off chance that the standard of supportable advancement as to embraced, the suggestions become increasingly unpredictable the UK, Sustainable Development Strategy doesn't mean having less financial turn of events: despite what might be expected, a sound economy is better ready to produce the assets to address people groups issues and new speculation and natural improvement frequently go deliver hand†¦. What it requires is that choices all through society are taken with

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Chamberlin & Castings Plc Finacial Management Essay

Chamberlin and Castings Plc Finacial Management - Essay Example A takeover could be antagonistic and opposed by an organization. This qualification is significant concerning valuation of the organizations and the board of hazard. The valuation of the Companies proposed to be blended is: first organization: Castings Plc. Esteemed at ?85 M second organization: Chamberlin Plc. Esteemed at ?40 M The paper tries to consider Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A), the defenses for takeover/merger, reason applied for target distinguishing proof and money related legitimizations for the proposition and make an investigation of the proposition. I - Mergers and Acquisitions The upsides of M&A in meeting the Challenges of vital improvement maybe essentially lay on the capacity it gives the organizations to develop quick in a quickly changing business condition. For example, venture into new items and new market territories through M&A process is less difficult and quicker contrasted with natural development which could be delayed in responding to the ou ter turns of events, thus holding onto the chances. Then again, the administrations place limitations on M&A however rivalry laws, for instance Competition laws in European Union and Antitrust Laws in the US. Correa (2007, p. vii) states â€Å"While IP law purposely subjects scholarly advantages for the selective control of right proprietors, rivalry law looks to stay away from showcase obstructions and advantage purchasers by empowering rivalry among an assortment of providers of products, administrations and technologies†. ... one trillion.† After the breakdown of garbage security showcase which has energized M&A in 1980s, the expansion in the M&A exercises have begun again and arrived at a remarkable level in 1990s. These mergers were level in nature in the field of oil, media transmission and monetary administrations principally in the US. M&A exercises follow a wave example and Johnson, Scholes and Whittington (2008, p. 349) express that the overall reported arrangements declined quickly after 2000 (falling by almost 30% in 2002 to around 25,000 arrangements). Legitimization for takeover procedure Corporate organizations have been receiving Mergers and Acquisitions as a system for development. M and A have been required because of different reasons, for example, inorganic development, cost decrease, access to innovation, development in piece of the overall industry, collaboration in the tasks, limit use, section into new markets, rivalry, requirement for capital, shortcoming in the cap ital structure of one of the blending organization, charge contemplations, brand worth and soundness in the activities. Rao (2009), states that the misfortunes can likewise be conveyed forward uncertainly for alleviation against future pay from a similar exchange Under UK Laws. The organizations can investigate the potential outcomes of exploiting this arrangement, through legitimate lawful structure of the consolidated element with the goal that the gathered misfortunes could be set-off against the benefits after merger. Relative valuation of the advantages of an organization and the general financial conditions can make the takeover proposition progressively appealing on a worldwide premise. The recovery in the US economy and the developing financial intensity of BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) nations make the benefits in the UK designing part alluring. Hochberg (2011, p. 23) predicts that M&A movement [in designing sector] will increment in 2011 as the

Friday, August 21, 2020

5 Social Media Predictions For 2013

5 Social Media Predictions For 2013 Make Money Online Queries? Struggling To Get Traffic To Your Blog? Sign Up On (HBB) Forum Now!5 Social Media Predictions For 2013Updated On 23/04/2017Author : celinaconnerTopic : Social MediaShort URL : CONNECT WITH HBB ON SOCIAL MEDIA Follow @HellBoundBlog2012 was a show that revolved a great deal on Social Media! More and more individuals as well as businesses are joining in on the fun each year and all the signs lead to predictions of how 2013 will become an even greater year for social media.Here are 5 predictions that you must look out for!1. Facebook will continue to monetize its servicesThe social media site of humble beginnings has once again proven why it is the largest social network in the world. 2012 was the year that Facebook reached 1 billion members, something that is worth remembering indeed. The social network that has made Zuckerberg a billionaire will continue to do so. Facebook is surely going to continue monetizing their online social serv ices for businesses and individuals as well who are in need of it. Although there were a few bumps here and there for the site, some of which had quite evident repercussions, do not expect this empire to crumble as other social sites have. Facebook will remain a well-built social media site that offers tools and services that have quality and have proven to be effective.2. Content marketing will become a major strategy2012 was truly a showcase of how powerful Content Marketing really is. People and Businesses alike have finally begun to understand and accept its importance and will begin to take it more serious. I anticipate that 2013 will be a year where content marketing will become an even more powerful marketing strategy. Businesses that have already experienced how effective it could be will double or even triple their efforts in implementing social marketing strategies. Expect to see a lot of companies from all industries around the globe taking up online armaments and chargin g full force in the social network.3. Google+ will become more aggressiveGoogle+ never really caught on to majority of the populous, unlike Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. However, do not be so quick to consider Googles social site as dead, at least not yet! The search engine tycoon has secretly been doing feature upgrades and developments in their system. I expect 2013 to be the year that Google finally unleashes its reins and begin the quest for social domination! Google has already unveiled Communities, something in the likes of Facebook groups, but that is only the beginning. Soon pretty much everything you do on the web will in some way be linked to Google+, meaning you will be participating in this war that the search engine is waging, even if you dont particularly choose to be in it. Basically, what Google is trying to do is to make you need their social tools.READ8 Must Haves For Any Blogger Who Makes Money4. More industries will start their online social presenceNecessity: The more traditional companies in many industries who have tried to keep things the way they are by staying out of almost any online presence has done so long enough. They have already started to realize that this is truly what the world is about and it is already time to lay down some of their traditional marketing strategies and adapt to what people/consumers have their eyes on. 2013 will open a lot of doors for many industries to set up their online social presence.5. The power of images will increaseEverybody loved sharing pictures on social media sites in 2012, and in 2013 even more people will! Statistics indicate that pictures and images are shared over 5 times more than purely textual posts and content. Instagram, a social media site that lets its members post and share pictures instantly, can surely attest to how much fact this is and also how effective it can be as marketing strategy for businesses as well. You can expect social sites to become even more loaded with image s this year!One great trend to look out for this 2013 are is the development of bigger and better mobile social sites. Every year people are relying more and more on their smartphones and tablets to stay connected on their social networks and 2013 is definitely not an exception. So, if you use your gadgets for majority of your online activities, you can expect this year to be very beneficial for you!There is a possible chance of new entry of creative social networks like (formerly It is a social network service founded in 2002 by Jeffrey Tinsley after meeting his wife at their high school reunion.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Flannery OConnor A Twentieth Century Fiction Writer Essay

There has been a significant amount critical analysis written about Flannery OConnors short stories and novels. There is a significant amount critical analysis about Flannery OConnor because she used so many styles that have not been used before. Flannery OConnor ranks among he most important American fiction writers of the twentieth century. Flannery OConnor was born in 1925 in Savannah, Georgia, and lived there until her family moved in 1938. OConnor and her family moved to a small Georgia farming town named Milledgeville. When Flannery was 15 years old her died father of a disease to the immune system known as lupus erythematosus. OConnor attended Georgia State College for Women after graduating from Peabody High School in 1942.†¦show more content†¦In 1955 OConnor produced her first collection of short fiction, A Good Man is Hard to Find. The title story of this collection is one of her best known works. OConnor eventually died in August 1964 having produced many contributions to American literature history. A Good Man is Hard to Find is one of the most characteristic and most frequently anthologized of all of OConnors works. This story explores the idea that unfortunate events can lead to knowledge. The plot of this story is simple and clear: a family on vacation is killed by an escape convict. OConnor does a great job in quot;...preparing for and unfolding the dramatic conflict between the grandmother and The Misfit, OConnor creates pure art out of the tragicomedy of lifequot;(DLB vol.2 383). In this, OConnor shows her characteristics of a good Christian writer: good is at any rate contorted out of evil. In all of OConnors stories there a certain pattern of a saving gesture or revealing word. In A Good Man is Hard to Find, the saving gesture is the grandmothers recognition of The Misfit. 3 Miss OConnor is criticized about her style of writing. OConnor is classified as a quot;Southernquot; and a quot;Catholicquot; writer by many critics. The major theme is that the Christian religion is a very shocking, and scandalous business. She has a sharp eye and a good ear for southern lifestyle. OConnor uses straightforward language and firmShow MoreRelated Flannery Oconnor1301 Words   |  6 Pagesreflected on how the world was dealing with the changes. Flannery O’Connor, a prominent Catholic writer from the South, was one of the many who examined society and shared their philosophies. O’Connor shocked her twentieth century readers with the haunting style and piercing questions in her short stories and novels, which were centered on a combination of her life experiences, her deep Catholic faith, and the literature of the time. Mary Flannery O’Connor was born in Savannah, Georgia in 1925 intoRead MoreThe Life Of Flannery OConnor Essay1099 Words   |  5 Pagespeople do not see the large influence of an author’s childhood on their writings, but it plays a major role. The life of Flannery O’Connor is no exception to this. The great Catholic lifestyle of her parents helped persuade her writing of, â€Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find.† Flannery O’Connor is regarded as one of the greatest supporters of Roman Catholic writings in the twentieth century. O’Connor was born in Savannah on March 25th, 1925 and her parents were very devout Catholics. She was raised to alwaysRead MoreMary Shelley and Flannery OConnor: Gothic Isolationists1724 Words   |  7 Pages Gothic fiction is a genre of literature that combines fiction, horror and Romanticism with a particular focus on the mysterious and supernatural aspects. Gothic fiction originated in England during the latter half of the 18th century. This distinctive genre of literature soon developed into a 19th century phenomenon. The success of this dominant genre in England is frequently attributed to Mary Shelley. Despite its success during this time period, gothic fiction ceased to be a dominant genre by

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Cyber Security Delusion Free Essay Example, 2000 words

All the organization globally need to make clear and good decisions to avoid risks and reduce or eliminate losses. The organization that makes good decisions normally generates profits with the minimal amount of resources allocations. Therefore, security evaluations and predictions are significant despite some degree of costs associated with them (Culp, 2001). The areas concerning the security are significant aspect because of the protection required by business, governments and any other organization globally. There is an application of the information technology to these institutions of business, governments to ensure that efficient and best protection is achieved at its maximum (Bryen, 2016). Information technology is an application of computers to transmit study, manipulate, transmit and store information or data in the context of governments, business or organizations and they are meant for security purposes. There is a need to develop the entrenched security structure for the IT and the blueprint security explanation that will save diverse overcrowding attacks and enable the systems to perform the efficient managements. There is a need for security because the data is growing and the attackers utilize many platforms to hack the data. We will write a custom essay sample on The Cyber Security Delusion or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The VIC government considers all the risks should be dealt with clearly and specifically utilizing the devices and strategies available. The security measures help in preventing discovering, correcting and preventing security problems and the risks from occurring making the working environment safe for them. There are many diverse challenges that need to be tackled with one or all of the devices of security measures (Culp, 2001). The management, heterogeneity, and scalability of the devices are the primary challenge that should be dealt with inclusive of the networked context and knowledge. The security, trust, and privacy should be modified to all the apparatus and information (Bryen, 2016).

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Women of Ancient Rome China - 805 Words

The empires of Rome and China were very great ones, they both had many similarities and differences in the way they ran their empires. One major difference was the way they treated their women. Both Chinese and Roman women were unequal in social status than the men of the empires were, but they were definitely treated different in both empires. Women of China were treated quite harshly and were expected to take orders at all times by their husbands, and were to serve them always. This started to happen especially after Confucius died because he taught people to treat each other the same, â€Å"after his death women became less free and lost status,†(Arvind 10). Women of Rome were treated like goddesses; they were to stay at home as housewives†¦show more content†¦However, they were allowed to play a part in religion; although it was not a high role, being a monk in the Chinese culture was seen to be the highest level of authority that a woman could be given. There wer e some differences between the two empires in this area, women in Rome were given the opportunity to become very important in the religion of the Roman people; however they were never given too much power, they would never be allowed to hold a position in office. It’s not hard to see that women were treated far worse than men were; this is just because the men never thought of them as equal and that was just the way it would be. Women in China were definitely treated like slaves as compared to Roman women who were given a little freedom; Chinese women would have to obey their husbands and had to make sure that their chores like cooking and cleaning were done by the end of the day. â€Å"In Rome women were treated inferior, but the men of the empire would always look after them; they would always have a male guardian with them most of the time,†(Ramirez et al 179). Chinese women were ordered around constantly and would never even think about disobeying their husbands. Roman women were treated more like precious gems; their husbands made sure that they avoided contact with men other than family members, they wanted to make sure their wives stayed pure and faithful to them at all times. In comparison, Chinese womenShow MoreRelatedWomen of Ancient Rome and China Essay2040 Words   |  9 PagesWomen of Ancient Rome and China Women in ancient Rome and China were very different but quite similar as for as their treatment and roles were concerned. In both cultures they were under the protection of their fathers until they married. When they married they were to stay home and be wives, they were not formally educated and learned to manage their households. They were not allowed to disgrace their families in any way and were inferior to men from the moment of birth. Chinese women whetherRead MoreAncient Rome And Ancient China939 Words   |  4 PagesAncient Rome and Ancient China were two different civilizations with very different yet very similar ways of life. Culture, religion, and more importantly, politics, helped make life the way it was for those who lived in ancient rome and ancient china. Politics were what made everything function, just as it does today. Politics is what was responsible for the wars that took place between civilizations, and why dynasty’s fell and why new ones rose right af ter. Politics were the backbone holding upRead MoreWomen Of The Roman Empire1022 Words   |  5 PagesIn the Roman Empire, and in most ancient societies, the role and status of woman has been obscured by the bias of ancient male writers. Just as women are viewed in ancient Greece, and Imperial China, women in the Roman Empire were viewed as inferior to men. In the Roman Empire it was believed that women should be under the control of a guardian, which controls the aspects of her life. This guardian could be her father, husband, or a male relative (Nystrom). Marriage in the Roman Empire was not romanticRead MoreChina vs. Rome Compare and Contrast1390 Words   |  6 PagesChina and Rome China and Rome were astonishing civilizations that managed to advance technology and civilations. Both civilizations were rapidly growing and making changes to the world. The two cultures were pretty similar, yet very different. Their religions were something to be modest about. When it came to religion it helped the decline of both societies, by religion changing. When it came to technology though, its change is what caused the societies to flourish. As for education the bothRead MoreWomen During The Roman Empire921 Words   |  4 PagesAside from ancient Greece and China, there has also been much diversity and contradictory evidence for women in the Roman Empire. On one hand, the cultural assumption was that women were inferior to men and they should obey their husbands or fathers. While, on the other hand, there is scattered evidence that women were engaged in commerce, heading of the household, and influencing politics. An approach to this second assumption was suggested that their participation by women in all these affairsRead MoreThe Roman And The Punic Wars1151 Words   |  5 Pages1. Long Essay The ancient Rome Empire raises their empire by coquetting many lands by fighting and coquetting them. One on the things that made Rome special was their expansion of the territory. What was different of other empires is, when they conquer a foreign land, they let them keep their traditions and their own culture. Instead of teaching them religion and make them be a Roman, they made them swear fealty to Rome. Roma wanted to spread their territory and their trading zone. One example ofRead MoreThe Role Of Women During The Han Dynasty And The Roman Empire1139 Words   |  5 PagesThe role of women in both the the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire women was ambiguous. The Han Dynasty ruled from 206 BCE–220 CE. Much later came the Roman Empire, which lasted from 27 CE-476 CE. In these civilizations, elite women were treated very differently than men because of their gender. Women had limited political freedom, their marriages were not loving partnerships, and women’s social expectations oppressed them. Although the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire were separated by many milesRead MoreEssay on The History of Punishment1108 Words   |  5 PagesSince the oldest civilizations till Today punishment has impact the world and how people live their life. Throughout generation to generation civilizations, countries have grown in crimes and punishment. Ancient punishments were harsher than Today’s punishments. In Middle ages, Ancient Greece and Rome, Mesopotamia they’d cruel punishments that were more harsher, severe than Today’s. In the oldest civilizations people were inhumane. They’d committed the most brutal punishments. Today, we have jails andRead MoreSimilarities Between Rome And Han China990 Words   |  4 PagesWhile Rome and Han China had similar methods of imperial consolidation concerning their patriarchal societies and upper-classes, the two differed greatly in their bureaucracies, policies regarding conquered peoples, and labor systems. Patriarchy was a prominent aspect of the societies of both empires. The family unit in Rome was ruled by paterfamilias, the male head, and women were thought of as children needing the care of their fathers or husbands and were confined to household duties. Women hadRead MoreWomen and Their Roles in History2647 Words   |  11 PagesMost women throughout history have made an impact or had a significant role in the society of their time. These women of ancient civilizations have led us to the roles of women in our society today. They have boosted the standing of women in society and have tried to be individuals. In some time periods, women were controlled completely by men and in others they were moderately controlled by men. This paper will focus on the roles of women in certain areas. The civilizations that I analyzed

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Calculation of GDP

Questions: 1. Table: GDP Data for Countries A and B Country A Country B $billions $billions Household Consumption 150 150 Government Purchases 250 250 Transfer payments 50 60 Total Gross Fixed Capital Expenditures 50 150 Change in Inventories 50 -50 Exports 40 40 Imports 20 20 Consider the data in table 1 for two countries: A and B. a. Calculate the GDP for both countries. b. Discuss the usefulness of these data in deciding which, if any, of these two countries is likely to be experiencing an economic recession. 2. Obtain Australia's real GDP and CPI data from 1980 to 2015. Calculate the annual growth rates of real GDP and inflation and graph both series together. Is/are there some interesting or salient relationship(s) between those two series? Provide and discuss plausible economic explanation(s), including change in economic events and change in government policy, for the relationship(s) you identified. 3. Obtain Australia's real GDP and unemployment data from 1980 to 2015. Calculate the growth rates of real GDP and unemployment and graph both series together. Is/are there some interesting or salient relationship(s) between those two series? Provide and discuss plausible economic explanation(s), including change in economic events and change in government policy, for the relationship(s) you identified. Answers: (1). a). Calculation of GDP for both Countries GDP can be calculated with the use of following formula: GDP = C + G + I + (X - M) Where, C = Consumption, G = Government spending I = Investment X = Export M= Import The below table shows the calculation of GDP for both countries Country A $billions Country B $billions Household Consumption (C) 150 150 Government Spending or purchase (G) 250 250 Gross Private Investment: Total Gross Fixed Capital Expenditures Change in Inventories 100 50 50 100 150 -50 Exports 40 40 Imports 20 20 GDP 520 520 Working Note: 1. Transfer payments were not used in the calculation of GDP for both countries. It is because these are excluded from the calculation of GDP (Asian Development Bank, 2007). 2. Secondly, change in inventories is positive for country A, therefore the value is added in the investment while it is decreased in the case of country B, so it is reduced from gross investment amount. It is clear from the above table that both country A and B has GDP of 520 billion dollars. b). Calculation of GDP is useful in deciding that if any of the country is likely to be experiencing an economic recession. It is because the GDP or Gross Domestic Product provides a tool to measure the goods and services monetary value, which are produced by a country during a particular year (Sexton, 2007). It is a significant data point that shows whether a country or economy is growing or contracting. For both countries, it is assessed that the GDP is 520 billion dollars. At the same time, it is also evaluated that household consumption is 150 billion dollars, government purchases are 250 billion dollars, investment is 100 billion dollars, and net exports is 20 billion dollars. These indicate positive value of consumer spending, as well as government and investment spending (International Monetary Fund, 2009). Thus, it can be stated that both countries have not potential to experience an economic recession. In addition, if in future periods, the GDP of both countries and any of the country decreases, it is likely that countries or the country can experience an economic recession. The recession can be found in both these countries due to several reasons such as low output growth, high inflation, increase in oil prices, and the debt crises (Clift, 2009). It is because these factors can reduce the household consumption, government spending, and investment. Moreover, there should faster growth in the current GDP in both countries to avoid the situation of recession. It is because the decrease in the GDP growth presents reduction in the income level as well as savings among the people, which can cause to the situation of recession. It can also be stated that due to the decrease in consumer purchasing power in both these countries or any of the country, the company is likely to face the situation of recession (Boone and Kurtz, 2012). (2). Explanation over the Relationship between Real GDP and Inflation GDP, exchange rate, unemployment, inflation, current account balance, etc. are some major indicators to access the economic conditions of county at micro level. The assessment of relationship between real GDP and inflation is performed in the context of Australia by obtaining data regarding these factors. For accessing these two major economic factors, growth rates are calculated for over the last 36 years. Through the application of below formula, data from 1980 to 2015 is used to calculate growth rates of Australian GDP and inflation rate. (Tucker, 2010) By using above formula, GDP volume and CPI index value is used to calculate GDP and inflation growth rate respectively in the context of Australia. The below table depicts growth rate value for these economic indicators, which are obtained through the application of the given formula: Year Annual GDP Growth Rate Annual CPI Growth Rate 1980 7.0 10.1 1981 4.2 9.5 1982 -0.4 11.4 1983 -0.2 10.0 1984 6.5 4.0 1985 5.1 6.7 1986 1.9 9.1 1987 5.7 8.5 1988 4.5 7.2 1989 4.2 7.5 1990 1.4 7.3 1991 -1.3 3.2 1992 3.0 1.0 1993 4.2 1.8 1994 4.6 2.0 1995 3.5 4.6 1996 3.9 2.6 1997 3.9 0.2 1998 4.9 0.9 1999 4.1 1.5 2000 3.5 4.5 2001 2.5 4.4 2002 4.0 3.0 2003 3.0 2.7 2004 3.9 2.3 2005 3.2 2.7 2006 2.7 3.6 2007 4.6 2.3 2008 2.5 4.4 2009 1.8 1.8 2010 2.4 2.9 2011 2.6 3.3 2012 3.6 1.8 2013 2.0 2.5 2014 2.6 2.5 2015 2.5 1.5 (ABS, 2016) On the basis of above data, below graph is developed and used to identify the relationship between the GDP and inflation growth rates: From the above graph, it can be stated the relationship of GDP and inflation in Australia is quite variant within the period from 1980 to 2015. It is identified from the above graph that in few years, GDP of this country depicts downwards trend, while inflation rate grew strongly over the same time period. Within the year 1982 and 1983, the growth rate of GDP was negative but on the other side, inflation rate grew by 11.35 and 10.04 percent respectively (ABA, 2016). It shows extreme level of negative relationship between the GDP and inflation rate. The government policy of liberalize economic system has influenced this relationship at the greater extent. For boosting production level in this country, government adopted expansionary policy to enhance the money supply and to reduce the unemployment. It made the borrowing cheap that encougred businesses and customers to spend more. Due to increase in consumer spending, demand of goods and services raised that created shortage in supply side. This situation laid to the decrease in the volume of production and increase in the prices. In long run, expansionary monetary policy of government influences the price level in the economy that leads to the situation of high inflation (McTaggart et al., 2012). Due to increase in prices, demand declines that tend businesses to produce less, which causes decrease in employment opportunities and to GDP rate. Hence, monetary of government is Australia has played critical role in influencing the price level in the economy that consequently influences demand and supply. Apart from this, it is also identified from the obtained series of Australian GDP and inflation growth rates that there is positive relationship has occurred between these two indicators within the few years. In 1996, fiscal measures were used by the government. Expansionary fiscal policy of Australian government has played critical role in increasing the GDP and decreasing the inflation growth rates significantly. For stimulating economic growth, government reduced taxes rates for the businesses and individuals. This situation laid to the increase in investment among businesses to produce more and disposable income. In the short run, it caused increase in employment opportunities that boosted the economic growth and declined the rate of inflation (Mankiw, 2014). During 1997 to 1999, GDP rate grew, while inflation rate declined at the significant level. In long run, expansionary fiscal policy caused the increase in price level as it caused upwards shift in the aggregate demand in the economy. Due to the tax cut, disposable income of people raised that caused increase in spending power that pushed the demand on the upward side. Increase in demand played critical role in increasing the level of prices in the economy (Veldkamp, 2011). In the year 2000 and 2001, inflation rate increased significantly in Australian economy than the GDP. This indicates the importance of governments monetary and fiscal policies in influencing the relationship of a nations major economic indicators and to manage the macroeconomic activities in the significant manner. The government and central bank (Reserve Bank of Australia) of Australia has used monetary and fiscal policies as tool to manage the macroeconomic environment and to boost the economic growth over time (RBA, 2016). From the obtained growth rates, it is also identified that the relationship between the growth rate for the inflation and GDP has changed highly frequently. This is observed that after the global financial crisis of 2008, the relationship between inflation and GDP became highly volatile. In few years, inflation rate of this country declined in compare to the GDP, whereas sometime, opposite situation has occurred. This indicates that global financial crisis has reduced the influence of government policies that caused to the volatility in the relationships of GDP and inflation (Economy Watch, 2010). The other major economic event is currency devaluation. The value of Australian dollar has declined significantly due to which, exports increased significantly than the imports. It caused increased in real GDP and demand both. This situation caused demand pull inflation. An increase in export than the import in an economy improves current account balance and reduces balance of payment defic it. The same situation is observed from the obtained data set for the Australian economy. The growth rates of GDP and inflation shows movement in the same direction after the financial crisis (Convict Creations, 2015). Thus, it can be stated on the basis of obtained series for the two major economic indicators that economic events and government policies has great influence on the relationship of two factors. (3). Explanation over the Relationship between Real GDP and Unemployment Real GDP and unemployment are the major macroeconomic indicators of a country. By analyzing relationship of these factors, economic health of a country can be analyzed significantly. For evaluating the relation of these two factors in the context of Australian economy, data regarding real GDP volume and number of jobless person in an economy is obtained to calculate growth rates (Mankiw, 2014). Data is obtained for the 1980 to 2015 as it is effective to understand the relationship trend among the real GDP and unemployment variables of the economy of this country. Growth rates are calculated by using the given formula: The below table depicts growth rates for the Australian real GDP and unemployment, which are calculated through the above formula: Year Annual GDP Growth Rate Annual Unemployment Growth Rate 1980 7.0 1.1 1981 4.2 0.4 1982 -0.4 54.8 1983 -0.2 1.9 1984 6.5 -9.1 1985 5.1 -5.8 1986 1.9 11.0 1987 5.7 -5.4 1988 4.5 -9.2 1989 4.2 -11.1 1990 1.4 39.9 1991 -1.3 28.5 1992 3.0 7.6 1993 4.2 -3.1 1994 4.6 -15.8 1995 3.5 -7.0 1996 3.9 6.9 1997 3.9 -8.4 1998 4.9 -8.5 1999 4.1 -5.1 2000 3.5 -5.4 2001 2.5 11.5 2002 4.0 -8.0 2003 3.0 -7.2 2004 3.9 -8.7 2005 3.2 2.2 2006 2.7 -7.4 2007 4.6 -3.3 2008 2.5 7.6 2009 1.8 22.2 2010 2.4 -9.3 2011 2.6 7.2 2012 3.6 5.9 2013 2.0 8.9 2014 2.6 5.4 2015 2.5 -3.8 (ABS, 2016) On the basis of the data of above table, below line graph is obtained to understand the relationship of these macroeconomic variables more effectively in the Australian context. From the above graph, it can be stated that there is negative relationship exist between GDP and unemployment rates in the context of Australian economy. In the year 1980, government developed liberalizes trade policy that laid to the development of free economy. Due to this, trade activities within this country increased significantly (Igan et al., 2013). In this situation, firms are tended to produce more for satisfying the demand in the economy. It caused increment in the job opportunities. The influence of this policy of Australian government on the relationship between the GDP growth rate and unemployment is clearly depicted in above graph. In the growing phase, aggregate demand raises that causes increase of production level in the economy and consequently job opportunities (Gwartney et al, 2014). The other policy of Australian government was deregulation of banking industry as it also caused decrease in GDP and increase in unemployment after the year 1982. For boosting economic growth, government eased entry of international banks and permitted them to set interest rates. This economic event made the banking industry of Australia highly competitive that caused decline in interest rates. Due to this, availability of cheap finance increased that encouraged businesses to invest and produce more. In short run, high production generated job opportunities that caused increase in demand. In long run, this situation became responsible for causing recession. Higher demand than the supply caused high prices that created cost push inflation in the economy (McEachern, 2013). In the recession phase, trade and demand both declined at considerable level that tended businesses to produce less. For surviving in the recession period, businesses adopted cost reduction activities and job cut is one from them. This caused decline in GDP that has reduced generation of employment opportunities (Tucker, 2010). The government policy of decreasing interest rate caused negative relationship between the GDP and unemployment in long run. In addition to this, privatization policy of the Australian government has also played crucial role in influencing the relationship between GDP and unemployment rates. Privatization in an economy causes competition for the resources that causes generation of several job opportunities. The same situation occurred in Australian economy during 1993 to 2000 due to privatization. In this period, GDP grew slightly, whereas significant decline incurred in unemployment rates (Carlin and Soskice, 2014). In this way, privatization economic event in Australian economy also caused negative relation between the GDP and unemployment variables. Similarly, negative relationship is also determined from the obtained data for the unemployment and GDP rates. After the global economic financial crisis, government of Australia adopted expansionary fiscal policy that also influenced GDP and unemployment level in this country. In this policy, government reduced tax rated for the corporate and individuals. This causes increase in the disposable income that contributes in increasing consumption. It leads to the upward movement in the aggregate demand. Fiscal policy of government in Australia caused increase in the real GDP, which means increase in the production level (Aoki and Yoshikawa, 2011). For producing more, they demanded more workers that caused decline in the unemployment level. It boosted the economic growth and this situation laid to the decline in job losses. In addition to this, expansionary monetary policy also played crucial role in generating negative relationship between GDP and unemployment level of this country. After the recession period of 1991 and 2008, government of Australia has focused in increasing money supply by reducing the interest rate. Monetary policy facilitated reduction in the cost of borrowings that encouraged people to spend more (Commonwealth of Australia, 2016). In this situation, aggregate demand raised that caused increases in GDP and reduction in demand deficient unemployment. Thus, it can be stated that GDP and unemployment has negative relations with the each other. Government policies have contributed in boosting economic growth and reducing unemployment. It created negative relationship between the real GDP and unemployment level of this country. References Aoki, M. and Yoshikawa, H. (2011) Reconstructing macroeconomics: a perspective from statistical physics and combinatorial stochastic processes. UK: Cambridge University Press. Asian Development Bank (2007) Key Indicators 2007, Volume 38. Asian Development Bank. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2016) Statistics. Boone, L. E. and Kurtz, D. L. (2012). Contemporary Marketing, 2013 Update. USA: Cengage Learning. Carlin, W. and Soskice, D. (2014) Macroeconomics: Institutions, instability, and the financial system. USA: Oxford University Press. Clift, J. (2009) Finance Development, June 2009. International Monetary Fund.